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Past to future

Past to future

Since there is no past without a future and there is no future without a past, the two are eternally linked to each other. This is represented by the single dot under the exclamation and question marks and is common to both.


  • The exclamation mark represents what happened in the past (i.e. “what was was” or "What happened happened").
  • The question mark represents the future and all the unknowns and uncertainties that it entails (e.g. what, how, by whom and when will certain things happen?)
  • The tree blowing in the wind above the exclamation and question marks, represents the “wind of time”, which always "blows" (or moves) towards the future.
  • The gaps (I.e. un-welded) at the right sides of the exclamation and question marks and the dot under them, impart dynamics to the sculpture by showing that the two marks and their common dot always move towards the future.




  • To form the rust patina on the Corten steel stand holding the two marks and their common dot, it was chemically oxidized by etching. In addition to providing a contrast to the stainless steel (SS) marks and their dot, the never stopping rusting process of this steel plate and changing appearance of the rust (i.e. coloration and pattern) with the weather, acts as a metaphor to the ever changing state of things as they continuously move from the past to the future.
  • The two marks and their common dot are made of SS316, manually GMA (MIG) welded to the Carten steel plate holding them in place.
  • The sculpture is 52" high, 48” wide and 17" deep and weighs about 350 lbs. The dimensions of its wooden or marble base are 63”x28.5”x5.3”.
  • The base of the sculpture to which it is bolted is stained and clear coated lumber, which is firmly anchored to the ground.
  • The sculpture, which can be displayed indoors or outdoors, is designed to be disassembled, transported and reassembled in place by bolting.



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